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GPAT Syllabus 2018 New AICTE GPAT Exam Pattern (Section-Wise) PDF Download

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GPAT Syllabus

GPAT Syllabus 2018: Get new GPAT Syllabus!!!! There are new topics added in AICTE GPAT syllabus. Candidates enrolled for Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test may access Section-Wise syllabus and AICTE GPAT Exam Pattern. Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test organized in online mode for 3 hours. GPAT Question paper comprise of MCQs with four options. We are listing New AICTE GPAT syllabus Section-Wise along with exam pattern.

To score good marks, it is important to prepare as per topics added in Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test syllabus. On the basis of marks obtained in GPAT 2018, candidates may apply for admission into Pharmacy courses. So candidates are advised to start their exam preparation from the GPAT Syllabus 2018 provided on the beneath section of this page which is well created by the team of www.privatejobshub.in.

GPAT Syllabus

AICTE GPAT Syllabus:

GPAT Syllabus 2018 comprises following subjects. In AICTE GPAT Exam, Questions will be asked from these subjects only. Must have a glance on the below provided list!!!

Subjects
Physical Chemistry
Microbiology
Physical Pharmacy
Pathophysiology
Organic Chemistry
Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics
Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Pharmaceutics
Anatomy, Physiology and Health Education
Pharmacology
Pharmaceutical Engineering
Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Management
Pharmaceutical Analysis
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence
Biochemistry
Dispensing & Hospital Pharmacy  
Biotechnology



Section-Wise GPAT Syllabus

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Composition & physical states of matter Intermolecular forces & their impact on state of the matter. Various physical properties of matter, dipole moment, dielectric constant, Van Der waal's equation & critical phenomenon, liquefaction of gases, aerosols.

Colligative Properties: The liquid state, vapor pressure, ideal & real solutions. Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular weight based on colligative properties.
Thermodynamics First, second & third law of thermodynamics. Thermochemical laws, isothermic & adiabetic processes, reversible processes, work of expansion, heat content, enthalpy, heat capacity. Gibb's & Helmoltz equation & chemical potential.
Chemical Equillibria.
Phase rule One, two, & three component systems along with their applications. Solid- solid, solid - liquid, & liquid-liquid systems. Distillation of binary systems, azeotropic mixtures, steam, vacuum, & fractional distillation.
Refractive index Refractive index, specific refractivity, molar refractivity, refractometers
Solutions Solubility, factors affecting solubility, solubility curves. Types of solutions, effect of cosolvancy, pH & other factors on solubility. Solubility of gases in liquids, liquids in liquids, & solids in liquids, critical solution temperature, law of partitioning & its applications. Solute solvent interactions. Expression of concentration of pharmaceutical solutions & calculations. Molarity, molality, mole fraction & percentage expressions.
Electrochemistry Properties of electrolyte solutions, electrolysis. Faraday's law of electrolysis, electron transport, electrical cell, single electrode potential, concentration cells, half-cells & half cell potential, types of half cells, sign convention, Nerst equation, salt bridge, electromotive series, standard potential, SHE. Measuring the relative voltage of half cells, Calculation of standard potential. Reference & indicator electrodes. Standard oxidation-reduction potential.
Ionic equilibrium Theory of conductivity, equivalent conductance, mobility of ions, specific conductance.
Kinetics Order of reactions, derivation & internal form of rate laws, molarities of reaction, derivation of rate constants.


Syllabus Of GPAT 2018

PHYSICAL PHARMACY
Matter, properties of matter:States of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heat and vapor pressure, sublimation-critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols- inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glasses state, solid crystalline and amorphous polymorphism
Micromeritics and powder rheology: Particle size and distribution, average particle size number and weight distribution, particle number, method of determining particle size and volume, optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation, determining surface areas, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement densities, bulkiness and flow properties.
Surface and interfacial phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tension, spreading coefficient, adsorption and liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, absorption at solid interfaces, solid gas and solid liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interfaces
Viscosity and rheology: Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematics viscosity, effect of temperature, non Newtonian systems, pseudoplastics, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy in formulations, determination of viscosity and thixotropy by capillary, falling ball, rotational
viscometer, application of theology in pharmacy
Dispersion systems: Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, application of colloids in pharmacy.
Suspensions and emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles settling in suspension, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, significance of electrical properties in dispersions, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations, emulsions: types, theories, physical stability
Complexation: Classification of complexes, methods of preparations and analysis, applications.
Buffer: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general. Buffers in pharmaceutical systems,
Preparations and stability, buffered isotonic solutions. Measurements of tonicity calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity
Solubility:
  • Miscibility-influence of foreign substances
  • three component systems
  • dielectric constant and solubility,
  • solubility of solids in liquids
  • ideal and non-ideal solutions
  • solvation and association in solutions
  • solubility of salts in water
  • solubility of slightly soluble and weak electrolyte
  • calculating solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by pH, influence of
  • solvents on the solubility of drugs
  • combined effect of pH and solvents, distribution of solutes between immiscible
  • solvents, effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on partition,
  • extraction, preservatives action of weak acids in emulsions, drug action and
  • distribution co-efficient.
b. Concepts of dissolution and diffusion.

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AICTE GPAT Exam syllabi

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
General principles: A brief review of classification & sources of organic compounds, sp3, sp2, sp hybridization, sigma & pi- bonds, bond lengths, bond angles & bond energies along with their significance in reactions should be carried out. An overview of bond polarization, hydrogen bonds, inductive effects, resonance, and hyper conjugation be taken. Concept of homolytic & heterolytic bond fission, acidity & basicity with different theories should be covered briefly. Ease of formation & order of stabilities of electron deficient & electron rich species along with the reasons for the same should be covered. Relationships between energy content, stability, reactivity & their importance in chemical reactions should be covered. Calculations for determining empirical & molecular formula should be covered.
Different classes of compounds: The following classes of compounds should be taught in detail with respect to their IUPAC / systematic nomenclature, industrial [wherever applicable] & laboratory methods of preparations, physical properties & chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms [arrow based] & stereochemistry [wherever applicable].
  • Alkanes [including cyclic compounds]
  • Alkenes [including cyclic compounds]
  • Alkynes [only open chain compounds]
  • Aliphatic hydroxyl compounds
  • Alkyl halides
  • Aldehydes & ketones
  • Carboxylic acids
  • All functional derivatives of carboxylic acids.
Protection & deprotection of groups: Introduction to protection & deprotection of functional groups. Two examples each for amino, hydroxyl, & carbonyl groups. The significance of these in syntheses should be explained.
Aromaticity & aromatic chemistry Concept of aromaticity, Huckel's rule & its use in determining the aromatic / nonaromatic character of a compound. A brief coverage of structure of benzene. Detailed coverage of electophilic & nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Reactivity & orientation in these reactions. Reactivity & orientation in mono- & disubstituted benzenes. Benzyne mechanism.
Different aromatic classes of compounds: The following classes of compounds with respect to their IUPAC / systematic nomenclature, industrial [wherever applicable] & laboratory methods of preparations,  physical properties & chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms [arrow based] & stereochemistry [wherever applicable].
Aromatic hydrocarbons.
Phenolic compounds.
Aromatic & aliphatic amines.
Diazonium salts.
Aromatic nitro- compounds, aryl halides, & ethers.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Syntheses & reactions with mechanisms of bi & tricyclic fused carbocyclic rings like naphthalene, anthracene, & phenanthrene.
Carbonyl Chemistry: Carbonyl chemistry involving group conversions & their reaction mechanisms along with stereochemistry wherever applicable.
a. Wolf-Kishner reduction & Huang-Minlong modification.
b. Reduction of arylsulfonyl hydrazine / hydrazones to alkanes.
c. Bamford Steven reaction.
d. DCC Oxidation of alcohol.
e. Michael addition / 1,4-addition / conjugate addition.
f. Mannich condensation / reaction.
g. Robinson annulation.
h. Stobbe condensation.
i. Darzen's glysidic ester synthesis.
j. Beckmann rearrangement.
k. Baeyer Villiger rearrangement.
l. Curtius, Wolff, & Lossen rearrangements.
m. Willgerodt rearrangement.
n. Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement.
o. Methylene transfer reactions. Use of diazomethane & sulphurylides in the same.
p. Mono- & dialkylations in 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.
q. Formation & use of enol ethers, enol acetates & enamines as protective groups & in regiospecific alkylations.
Heterocyclic Chemistry: IUPAC Nomenclature of heterocyclic rings [3-10 membered] containing O, S, & N atoms. Nomenclature of above rings containing mono-,di-, & multiple [same or different] heteroatoms should also be covered. Nomenclature of 2 & 3 fused rings containing mono-, di-, & multiple heteroatoms [same or different] should also be covered. Syntheses & reactions of three to six membered rings in detail. Syntheses of five & six membered rings containing mono- or any di- heteroatoms [O, S, & N]. Syntheses of quinoline, isoquinoline, benzoxole, benzthiole, & benzazole, benzdiazole, benzoxazole, & benzthiazole
Bridged rings: Bridged ring systems & their nomenclature.
Kinetic & thermodynamic control: Kinetic & thermodynamic control of sulfonation, enolate anion formation & alkylation of enamine reactions.
Stereochemistry Stereochemistry: Chirality & asymmetry [introduction of the same to S, P, & N]. Definition & classification [different types of isomerisms]. Enantiomers, diastereomers. Enantiomerism & diastereomerism. Meso compounds & their optical activity. Stereochemistry in acyclic compounds. Newman projection formulae & their significance. Conformational analysis of n- butane. Absolute & relative configuration. Assigning R & S configuration based on Cahn Ingold & Prelog system. Racemic mixture- its definition & resolution. Definitions of terms stereoselective, stereospecific, Enantiomeric excess & distereomeric excess. Stereochemistry in cyclic systems. Conformations of cyclohexane. Cis - trans relationship in cyclohexane. Prediction of stability of different conformations of 1, 2- 1,3- & 1,4- disubstituted cyclohexanes. Effect of multiple substitutions on the stability of cyclohexane conformations. Chair conformations of cis-, & trans-decalins, perhydrophenanthrenes, & a tetracyclic steroidal nucleus. An introduction to atropisomerism
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates. Definition & classification. D & L nomenclature in sugars. Different ways of drawing / representing a sugar molecule [including cyclic Structure],
interconversion of these representations. Anomers & epimers. Mutarotation. Reactions
of glucose. Chain extension & chain reduction of a sugar.
Amino acids & proteins: Amino acids & proteins. Definition & classification. D & L Amino acids, natural, essential, & non-essential amino acids. Denaturation, Strecker, Gabriel phthalamide methods for the preparation of amino acids. Peptide bond & its formation. Two protective groups each, for -NH2 & -COOH functionalities during protein synthesis. Sequencing of a protein by chemical & enzymatic methods.
Organometalic chemistry: Organometalic chemistry [preparation & few reactions] of Cu & Boron.
Pericyclic reactions: Pericyclic reactions. Concept of HOMO & LUMO. Drawing of HOMO & LUMO of 1, 3- butadiene, allylic cation, radical & anion, & 1, 3, 5-hexatriene. Meaning of conrotatory & disrotatory. Allowed & disallowed thermal & photochemical reactions. Introduction to sigmatropic, electrocyclic & (4n + 2) cycloaddition reactions. Cope, oxy-cope [Claisen rearrangement], Diel's-Alder & retro Diel's Alder reaction.


GPAT Syllabus 2018

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
Pharmaceutical Impurities: Impurities in pharmaceutical substances, sources, types & effects of impurities. Limit tests for heavy metals like lead, iron, arsenic, mercury & for chloride & sulphate as per Indian Pharmacopoeia [I. P.].
Monographs:Monograph & its importance, various tests included in monographs as per I. P. A study of the following compounds with respect to their methods of preparation, assay, & pharmaceutical uses: sodium citrate, calcium carbonate, copper sulphate, light & heavy kaolin, ammonium chloride & ferrous gluconate.
Isotopes: Isotopes- stable & radioactive, mode & rate of decay. Types & measurement of radioactivity. Radiopharmaceuticals & their diagnostic & therapeutic applications in pharmacy & medicine such as 125I, 32P, 51Cr, 60Co, 59Fe, 99Tc-M. Radiocontrast media, use of BaSO4 in medicine
Therapeutic classes of drugs: The following topics should be dealt with covering nomenclature [including stereochemical aspects], biological activity [including side & toxic effects ], mode of action, structure activity relationship [where ever applicable] & syntheses of reasonable molecules.
1. Dentifrices, desensitizing agents, & anticaris agents.
2. General anesthetics.
3. Local anesthetics.
4. Antiseptics, disinfectants, sterilants, & astringents.
5. Purgatives, laxatives & antidiarrhoeal agents.
6. Diagnostic agents.
7. Coagulants, anticoagulants & plasma expanders.
Drug metabolism: Introduction to drug metabolism based on the functional groups.
Various classes of therapeutic agents: A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs.
a. Antiamoebic agents.
b. Anthelmintic agents.
c. Antibacterial sulpha drugs [only].
d. Quinolone antibacterials.
e. Antimycobacterial drugs.
f. Antifungal agents.
10
g. Antiviral agents including HIV & anti-HIV drugs.
h. Thyroid & anti thyroid drugs.
i. Antiallergic agents.
j. Antiulcer agents & Proton Pump Inhibitors.
k. Hypoglycemic agents.
l. Antimalerials
Different classes of therapeutic drugs: A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA] , structure activity relationships [SAR] , wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs.
a) Sedative-hypnotics
b) Antiepileptic agents.
c) Neuroleptics.
d) Anti-anxiety drugs.
e) Diuretics.
f) Antibiotics. Penicillins, cephalosporins & other beta- lactam antibiotics like imipenam & aztreonam. Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid & sulbactum. Chloramphenicol. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics. Lincomycins. Polypeptide antibiotics. Anticancer antibiotics.
g) Steroids. Corticosteroids [gluco- & mineralocorticoids] & anti-inflammatory steroids. Sex steroids. Male & female contraceptive agents. Anabolic steroids.
h) Anticancer agents
Different classes of therapeutic drugs: A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature,classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, in respective classes of drugs.
a) Narcotic [centrally acting] analgesics [analgetics]. Morphine & all its structural
modifications [peripheral & nuclear]. Narcotic agonists & antagonists [dual &
pure]. Non-narcotic analgesics [NSAIDS]. Difference between narcotic & nonnarcotic
agents.
b) Adrenergic drugs. Neurotransmitters & their role. General & specific adrenergic
agonists & antagonists [up to alpha-2 & beta-2 only].
c) Cholinergic agents. Muscarinic & nicotinic cholinergic agonists & antagonists [up to M2 & N2]. Neuronal [transmission] blockers.
d) Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders. Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Central & peripheral muscle relaxants.
e) Hypertensive, antihypertensive, & antianginal agents.
f) Eicosanoids. Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, & thromboxanes. Their biochemical role, biosynthesis, & inhibitors.
g)Introduction to quantitative structure activity relationship. [QSAR]. Linear free energy relationship. Hammett's equation. Use of substituent constants such as π, σ, Es, & physicochemical parameters such as pKa, partition coefficient, Rm, chemical shifts, molar refractivity, simple & valance molecular connectivity to indicate electronic effects, lipophillic effects, & steric effects. Introduction, methodology, advantages & disadvantages / limitations of Hansch analysis.
h) Asymmetric synthesis. Chirality, chiral pool, sources of various naturally available chiral compounds. Eutomers, distomers, eudismic ratio. Enantioselectivity & enantiospecificity. Enantiomeric & diasteriomeric excess. Prochiral molecules. Asymmetric synthesis of captopril & propranolol.
i) Combinatorial chemistry. Introduction & basic terminology. Databases & libraries. Solid phase synthesis technique. Types of supports & linkers, Wang, Rink, & dihydropyran derivatized linkers. Reactions involving these linkers. Manual parallel & automated parallel synthesis. Houghton's tea bag method, micromanipulation, recursive deconvolution. Mix & split method for the synthesis of tripeptides. Limitations of combinatorial synthesis. Introduction to throughput screening

GPAT Syllabus 2018

PHARMACEUTICS
Pharmacy Profession: Pharmacy as a career, evaluation of Pharmacy, earlier period middle to modern ages.
Introduction to Pharmaceuticals: Definition, importance of pharmaceuticals, areas concerned, scope of Pharmaceutics, history and development of profession of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical industry in India. A brief review of present Indian Pharma. Industry in global perspective.
Introduction to dosage form: Definition of drug. New drug and dosage form. The desirable properties of a dosage form, the need of dosage form. Ideas about available type of dosage forms and new drug delivery system
Route of administration: Route of administration with respect to dosage form design, physiological consideration for various routes of administration.
ADME Scheme of fate of dosage form after its administration. Definition and introduction to concept of absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of drug. Introduction to bioavailability and various equivalences referring plasma time profile of drug
Sources of drug information: Introduction to Pharmacopoeia with reference to IP, BP, USP and International Pharmacopeia. Study of structure / features (index) general notice and compartment of monographs of excipients, drug and drug product. Other sources. Textbooks, journals, internet (drug information system, online database, patient/ consumer information and non- print material. Classification of information, primary, secondary and tertiary. Nomenclature of drug.
Allopathic dosage form: Merits / demerits, importance, formulation development - vehicles / excipients with examples for the dosage form: liquid dosage form: monophasic liquid dosage form. Aromatic waters, syrup, elixir, linctus, lotion, liniment, glycerites, solutions, spirits, ENT preparations, mixtures, paints, mouthwash.
Crude extract: Infusion, decoction, maceration, percolation, tincture and extract. Methods of preparations of dry, soft and liquid extract.
Allergenic extract: Types of allergens, preparation of extract, testing and standardization of extracts
Ayurvedic system of medicine: Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, various branches of treatment in ayurveda, types of drug formulation in Ayurveda and important Ayurvedic drugs and their uses, formulation of asavas, arishtas, watika, churna, tailas, ghruta, lep
Homeopathic system of medicine: Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, treatment, source of homeopathic medicines and important homeopathic drugs and their uses
Biological products: Absorbable and non-absorbable material types, sutures and ligatures, processing, manufacturing, sterilization, packing, QC tests of materials like catgut and nylon.
GMP: Introduction to GMP, QC and QA
Pharmaceutical Plant, location, layout: Plant location and lay out of an industry. Various factors affecting locational aspects of chemical and pharmaceutical plants. Layout of plant building and importance of flow sheet, difference between scientific process and technological process, layout of various departments, equipments, and product lay out v/s process layout.
Dosage Form Necessities and Additives: Antioxidants, preservatives, coloring agents, flavoring agents and diluting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, ointment bases, solvents, and others.
Powders: Advantages and limitations as dosage form, manufacturing procedure and equipments, special care and problems in manufacturing powders, powders of IP, effervescent granules and salts.
Capsules: Hard gelatin capsules, shell formulation and manufacturing, capsule sizes, storage, filing, cleaning process general formulation contents and evaluation. Soft gelatin capsules, shell formulation, formulation contents, filing, sealing and storage. Microencapsulation, advantages, encapsulation materials, methods of microencapsulation, I.P. formulations
Tablets: Types, ideal requirement, classification, granulation methods, general formulation, compression machines, different types of tooling’s, difficulties in tableting, trouble shooting aspects, evaluation, sugar coating, compression coating, film coating, problems in tablet coatings and their trouble shooting aspects. IP formulations.
Parenterals - product requiring sterile packaging: Definition, types advantages and limitations, general formulation, vehicles, production procedure, production facilities, controls, tests, selected IP injections, sterile powders, implants, emulsions, suspensions.
Suspensions: Formulation of deflocculated and flocculated suspension, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP suspensions.
Emulsions: Types, emulsifying agents, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP emulsions.
Suppositories: Ideal requirements, bases, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.
Semisolids: Definitions, bases, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.
Liquids (solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses): Definition, types, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.
Pharmaceutical Aerosols: Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications. Impacts of propellants on environment.
Ophthalmic preparations: Requirement, formulation, methods of preparation, containers, evaluation, IP products.
Preformulations: Consideration of Importance, physical properties, physical forms, particle size, crystal forms, bulk control, solubility, wetting, flow cohesiveness, compressibility, organoleptic properties and its effect on final product consideration of Chemical properties, hydrolysis, oxidation, recemization, polymerization, isomerization, decarboxylation, enzymatic decomposition, formulation additives, stabilizers, suspending and dispersing agents dyes, solid excipients etc. and its effect on quality of finished product.
Radio Pharmaceuticals: Therapeutic uses, diagnostic uses, facilities and work area, preparation of radio pharmaceuticals, radio pharmaceuticals used in medicines.
Stability of formulated products: Requirements, drug regulatory aspects, pharmaceutical products stability, self life, overages, containers, closures.
Kinetic Principles and Stability Testing: Reaction rate and order, acid base catalysis, de stabilization and accelerated stability testing.
Prolonged Action Pharmaceuticals: Benefits, limitations, oral products, terminology, drug elimination rate, types and construction of implants products, product evaluation, parenteral products, absorption and evaluation
Novel Drug delivery system: Critical fluid technology, transdermal drug delivery system, controlled drug delivery system, multiple emulsion, nano particles, targeted drug delivery system, aerosols, inhalation & new products reported etc.
Cosmetics: Formulation and preparation of dentifrices, hair creams, lipsticks, face powders, shaving preparations, skin creams, shampoos, hair dyes, depilatories, manicure preparations etc.
Packaging Materials: Role and features of Pharmaceutical packing materials. Glass, plastic, rubber, metal and paper as pharmaceutical packaging material. General quality control of pharmaceutical packages. Primary, secondary and tertiary packaging materials. Child resistant and pilfer proof packaging.
GMP and Validation: Concept and need of good manufacturing practice guidelines. Elements of GMP covering controls of area and processes and product. Regulations related to GMP. Introduction of validation process. Types of validation. Brief methodology of process, equipments and instrument validation.
Pilot plant scale up techniques: Need, organization and layout, scale up techniques for solid and liquid dosage forms. Technology transfer.


Syllabus Of GPAT Exam

PHARMACOLOGY
General Pharmacology: Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, scope and source of drugs, dosage form and routes of drug administration. Pharmacodynamics-Mechanism of drug action, Receptors, classification and drug receptors interaction, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action.
Pharmacokinetics-Mechanism and principle of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism
and Excretion of drugs. Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics.
Pharmacogenetics. Adverse drug reactions.
Discovery and development of new drugs-Preclinical and clinical studies.
Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system: Neurohumoral transmission (Autonomic and somatic).
Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Sympatholytics,
Ganglionic stimulants and blockers. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal
muscle relaxants (peripheral).
Local anesthetic agents. Drugs used in Myasthenia Gravis.
Pharmacology of cardiovascular system: Introduction of hemodynamic and Electrophysiology of heart.
Anti-hypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal agents, Anti-arrhythmic drugs.
Drugs used in congestive heart failure. Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs.
Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
Haematinics, anticoagulants and haemostatic agents.
Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs.
Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs acting on urinary system: Diuretics and anti-diuretics.
Drugs acting on Respiratory system: Anti-asthmatic drugs, Mucolytics and nasal decongestants, Anti-tussives and expectorants. Respiratory stimulants
Pharmacology of central nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S with special emphasis on Pharmacology of various neurotransmitters. General anesthetics. Alcohols and disulfiram. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, anti-manics and hallucinogens.
Anti-epileptic drugs. Anti-parkinsonism drugs. Nootropics.
Narcotic analgesics, drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.
Pharmacology of Endocrine system: Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology. Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Thyroid hormones and ant thyroid drugs, Parathormone, Calcitonin and vitamin-D. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents and glucagon. ACTH and corticosteroids. Androgens and anabolic steroids. Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. Drugs acting on the uterus.
Chemotherapy: General principals of chemotherapy. Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole. Antibiotics- Penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, Macrolides, quinolines and fluoroquinolins, quinolones. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, AIDS, protozoal diseases, worm infections, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Chemotherapy of malignancy.
Autacoids and their Antagonists: Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin, bradykinin and substance P. Analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs.
Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract: Antacids, anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs. Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs. Appetite stimulants and suppressants. Digestants and carminatives. Emetics and antiemetics.
Chronopharmacology: Definition of rhythm and cycles. Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy
Immnopharmacology: Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants
Chemotherapy of malignant diseases: Basic principal of chemotherapy. Drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.
Peptides and proteins as mediators: General Principal of peptide pharmacology Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides Peptide antagonists. Protein and peptide as drugs.
Nitric oxide: Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role. Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors. Clinical condition in which nitric oxide may play a part.
Vitamins & Minerals: Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management. Role of minerals in health & diseases
Principles of toxicology: Definition of poison. General principles of treatment of Poisoning. Treatment of poisoning due to Heavy metals, insecticides, opioids and other addict forming drugs. Study of acute, sub acute and chronic toxicity as per OECD guidelines. Genotoxicity, Carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and mutagenicity studie


Syllabus Of GPAT

PHARMACOGNOSY
Introductory Pharmacognosy: Historical development, modern concept and scope of Pharmacognosy. Significance of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathic and Siddha.
Classification of crude drugs: Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and chemotaxonomic methods: organized and unorganized drugs: official and unofficial drugs.
Sources of crude drugs: Plants, animals and minerals: marine products: plant tissue culture.
Factors influencing quality of crude drugs: Exogenous factors: temperature, rainfall, daylight, altitude and soil. Endogenous factors: Mutation, polyploidy, & hybridization in medicinal plants. Production factors including collection, drying, storage and transport methods.
Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs, Ergastic cell
inclusions, anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems, leaves and roots:
barks, fruits and seeds.
Techniques in microscopy: Details of mountants, clearing agents, chemomicroscopic (microchemical) reagents.
Introduction to phytoconstituents: Definition, classification, chemical tests and pharmaceutical importance of: carbohydrates and their derivatives, fats and proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, resins, lipids and volatile oils.
Principles of plant classification: Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to:
Algae: Rhodophyceae (Agar, Alginic acid, Diatoms).
Fungi: Ergot, Yeast and penicillium.
Gymnosperm: Pinaceae (Turpentine, Colophony), Gnetaceae (Ephedra).
Angiosperm: Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae,
Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Acanthaceae and Apiaceae.
Pteridophytes: Male fern.
Pharmaceutical aids: Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Starches, acacia gum, tragacanth, sterculia, guar gum, pectin, arachis oil, castor oil, sesame oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, cotton, silk, wool, regenerated fibers, asbestos, kaolin, prepared chalk, kieselghur.
Animal products: Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Shellac, cochineal, cantherides, woolfat, lard, beeswax, honey, musk, lanolin, gelatin.
Plant products: Introduction to plant bitters, sweeteners, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and photosensitizing agents.
Toxic drugs: Study of allergens, hallucinogens, narcotics, toxic mushrooms
Enzymes: Biological sources, preparation, characters and uses of: diastase, papain bromalain, ficin, yeast, pancreatin, urokinase, pepsin, trypsin, pencillinase, hyaluronidase and stryptokinase
Natural pesticides and insecticides: Introduction to herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and rodenticides tobacco, pyrethrum, & neem.
Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs: Different methods of adulteration: Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods. Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects
Quantitative microscopy: Definition and determination of stomatal index, stomatal number, palisade ratio, vein islet number, vein termination number, lycopodium spore method. Micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters.
Biogenetic pathways: Formation of primary and secondary metabolites. Study of Calvin cycle, TCA cycle, Shikimic acid pathway, Embden-Mayerhoff pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenoid pathway. Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and volatile oils.
Carbohydrates & lipids: Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents, and uses of: Plantago, bael, chalmooogra oil, neem oil, shark liver oil, cod liver oil, guggul lipids
Tannins: Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, chemical test and uses of: Pale catechu, black catechu, nutgalls, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia arjuna
Volatile oils: Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Black pepper, turpentine, mentha, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, lemon peel, orange peel, lemon grass, citronella, cumin, caraway, dill, spearmint, clove, anise, star anise, fennel, nutmeg, eucalyptus, chenopodium, ajowan, sandal wood.
Resinous drugs: Classification, formation, sources, chemical constituents, identification test, adulterants and uses of: benzoin, peru balsam, tolu balsam, colophony, myrrh, asafoetida, jalap, colocynth, ginger, turmeric, capsicum, cannabis, podophyllum
Glycosides: Nature and classification. Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Digitalis, strophanthus, squill, thevetia, oleander, cascara, aloe, rhubarb, senna, quassia, dioscorea, quillaia, glycyrrhiza, ginseng, gentian, wild cherry, withania, bitter almond. Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides.
Alkaloids: Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Areca nut, belladonna, hyoscymous, stramonium, duboisea, coca, coffee, tea, cinchona, opium, ipecac, nux vomica, ergot, rauwolfia, vinca, kurchi, ephedra, colchicum, vasaca, pilocarpus, aconite, Solanum xanthocarpum. Biosynthesis of tropane, cinchona and opium alkaloids
Herbarium: Preparation of herbarium sheets and their importance in authentication of plants.
Extraction and Isolation Techniques: General methods used for the extraction, isolation and identification of alkaloids, lipids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and resins. Application of column, paper and thin layer chromatographic techniques, for the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals.
Phytopharmaceuticals: Isolation, identification and estimation of: caffeine, eugenol, digoxin, piperine, tannic acid, diosgenin, hesperidine, berberine, calcium sennosides, rutin, glycyrrhizin, menthol, ephedrine, quinine, andrographolides and guggul lipids.
Quality control and Standardization of herbal drugs: Quality control of herbal drugs as per WHO, AYUSH and Pharmacopoeial guidelinesExtractive values, ash values, chromatographic techniques (TLC, HPTLC and HPLC) for determination of chromatographic markers. Determination of heavy metals, insecticides, pesticides and microbial load in herbal preparations.
Herbal formulations: Principals involved in Ayurveda, Sidha, Unani, Chinese and Homeopathic systems of medicines. Preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like aristas, asava, ghutika, tailia, churna, avaleha, ghrita and bhasmas: Unani formulations like majooms, Safoofs. Determination of alcohol contents in arishtas & asavas.
Worldwide trade: of crude drugs and volatile oils Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade.
Plant Biotechnology: History and scope of plant tissue culture, growth media, plant growth regulators: callus and suspension culture, Biotransformation, immobilization, hairy root culture. Transgenic plants and their applications, plant tissue culture as source of secondary metabolites.
Herbal cosmetics: Importance of herbals as shampoos (soapnut), conditioners and hair darkeners, (amla, henna, hibiscus, tea), skin care (aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver).
Traditional herbal drugs: Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore), pharmacological and clinical uses of: punarnava (Boerhaviadiffusa), shankhpushpi (Convolvulus microphylla), lehsun (Allium sativum), guggul (Commiphora mukul), kalmegh (Andrographis peniculata), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), valerian (Valerian officinalis), artemisia (Artemisia annua), chirata (Swertia chirata), ashoka (Saraca indica).
Plants based industries and research institutes in India: Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research.
Patents: Indian and International patent laws, proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural products and processes: Intellectual Property Rights with special reference to phytoconstituents.


GPAT Exam Pattern 2018:
  • The examination will be carried out as online Computer Based Test (CBT)
  • Multiple choice questions will be asked in the Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test
  • Total 125 questions will be asked in the GPAT Exam
  • The medium of the test paper will be English only.
  • The duration of the examination will be 3 hours.
  • For each correct answer, 3 marks will be allotted to the candidates
  • 1 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.

Exam
Total Questions
Total Marks
Marking Scheme
Duration (Minutes)
GPAT
125
500
4×1
180

Procedure Tpo download GPAT Syllabus 2018:
  • First of all candidates have to visit the Official webportal of Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test that is aicte-gpat.in
  • On the home page you have to hit on “Syllabus” tab given in the menu bar
  • After tapping the above said link, A PDF file will appear on your digital screen containing syllabus of AICTE GPAT Exam
  • You are advised to go through it carefully and also download the AICTE GPAT Syllabus
  • At last you have to take print out of the GPAT Syllabus and start your exam preparation accordingly.
Get Here>>>>GPAT Syllabus 2018

Note:

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